**SYNOPSIS:**

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The objective of this project is to bend the rod by using with help of human effort; it is know as manually operated pipe pending machine. The rod bends by using with the help of roller for the smooth bending operation.Used for slider crank mechanisms.

INTRODUCTION

In engineering mechanics, bending (also known as flexure) characterizes the behavior of a structural element subjected to an external load applied perpendicular to the axis of the element. A structural element subjected to bending is known as a beam. A closet rod sagging under the weight of clothes on clothes hangers is an example of a beam experiencing bending.Bending produces reactive forces inside a beam as the beam attempts to accommodate the flexural load; the material at the top of the beam is being compressed while the material at the bottom is being stretched. There are three notable internal forces caused by lateral loads: shear parallel to the lateral loading, compression along the top of the beam, and tension along the bottom of the beam. These last two forces form a couple or moment as they are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction. This bending moment produces the sagging deformation characteristic of compression members experiencing bending.This stress distribution is dependent on a number of assumptions.First, that ‘plane sections remain plane’. In other words, any deformation due to shear across the section is not accounted for (no shear deformation). Also, this linear distribution is only applicable if the maximum stress is less than the yield stress of the material. For stresses that exceed yield, refer to article plastic bending.The compressive and tensile forces induce stresses on the beam. The maximum compressive stress is found at the uppermost edge of the beam while the maximum tensile stress is located at the lower edge of the beam. Since the stresses between these two opposing maxima vary linearly, there therefore exists a point on the linear path between them where there is no bending stress. The locus of these points is the neutral axis. Because of this area with no stress and the adjacent areas with low stress, using uniform cross section beams in bending is not a particularly efficient means of supporting a load as it does not use the full capacity of the beam until it is on the brink of collapse. Wide-flange beams (I-Beams) and truss girders effectively address this inefficiency as they minimize the amount of material in this under-stressed region.

__ WORKING PRINCIPLE__

In our project we are using the manually operated pipe bending machine. The machine is consisting of rolling handle and side shaft. The fixed roller is placed in the center of the machine with is attached of handle for the moving of rod to bending operation. The rod is fixed in the side of wise to be clamped and using with the handle roller move for our required shape of u type. The rod bending operation is carried by simple manner.

**MERITS**

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- Low cost machine
- Easy to handling the machine
- Simple in construction

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**APPLICATIONS**

- It is applicable in the small scale industries as well as in the building construction etc..,

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